2020 SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS

USING THE INTER-LINKED MONTE CARLO SIMULATION METHOD (iMCS) TO CALCULATE THE VALUE OF THE ELEVATOR ROUND TRIP TIME TO REFLECT THE RANDOM NATURE OF PASSENGER ARRIVALS

Lutfi Al-Sharif, Noor Toghoj, Ammar Hakam
The University of Jordan Jordan

The Monte Carlo Simulation method (MCS) has been successfully used to find the value of the elevator round trip time under general traffic conditions. It has also been extended to find the value of the round-trip time under destination group control.

This paper extends the application of the method by introducing the so-called “interlinked Monte Carlo Simulation” method (iMCS). In the conventional MCS method, the trials are not linked, and each trial is completely independent of the other trials. The new suggested method (iMCS) will link the trials such that the end conditions of one trial affect the initial conditions of the following trial. This “interlinking” allows the method to reflect the effect of the random passenger arrivals on the value of the round-trip time. It can even be extended to quantify the effect of elevator bunching on the value of the round-trip time and hence the loss in handling capacity due to the effects of elevator bunching.

Examples will be coded in MATLAB and presented to illustrate the method and its results.


A MATLAB/SIMULINK BASED ELEVATOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION MODEL

Lutfi Al-Sharif, Mohammad Al-Ahdab
The University of Jordan Jordan

A number of different approaches have been used in order to estimate the energy consumption of elevators. Such approaches have ranged from simple rules of thumb, to lookup tables, and more detailed equation-based models.

This paper presents an approach based on the use of MATLAB/Simulink to model the various components used in an elevator in order to calculate the power drawn during the elevator journey as well as the total energy consumption. The model comprises a number of modular blocks, such as the variable speed drive, the induction motor, the gearbox, the ropes, the elevator car, the counterweight as well as the passenger load.
The main advantage of this model is that it models the energy accurately based on the mechanical and electrical design of the system, as well as the kinematic parameters Moreover, the model is open source, transparent and intuitive (as it is based on the dragging and dropping of modules).

The model offers a platform for any elevator system designer to calculate the energy consumption of the system based on the electrical and mechanical components of the system.


THE ROUND TRIP TIME SIMULATION

Matthew Appleby, Richard Peters
Peters Research United Kingdom

Currently, the two main paradigms of lift traffic analysis applied by the lift industry are Round Trip Time calculations (RTT) and dispatcher-based simulations. General Analysis (GA) RTT allows classical uppeak RTT to be extended to account for complex scenarios such as mixed traffic patterns.

Now, Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) will allow GA RTT to be extended to account for even more complex scenarios such as destination control. MCS sits in between the calculation and simulation paradigms; individual round trips are simulated and the process is repeated many times to determine standard parameters including average number of stops, capacity factors and round trip time. In this paper, the authors discuss the implementation of MCS within lift traffic analysis software and demonstrate its consistency with classical uppeak RTT, GA RTT and full dispatcher-based simulation. The implementation allows MCS to fit within current design methodologies used in lift traffic analysis.


A DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF ROPE TENSION METER USED FOR LIFT AUTOMATIC DOOR ASSEMBLY

Anup Balharpure1, Rohit Nehe2
1Rewale Engineering Pvt. Ltd. India, 2Creestaa Elevator (India) Pvt. Ltd. India

The present work demonstrates a low-cost open-source design of a rope tension meter specifically designed for measuring rope tension of lift door assembly. The potential use of such easy to use, economical and handy unit could be in a door header production plant and on installation site for measuring rope tension.
The rope tension meter consists of a sensor unit and the embedded system equipped with a signal conditioning circuit, digitization circuit, microcontroller, and interactive display. The sensor unit is designed such that the load cell is mounted on a custom-designed mechanical structure.
The sensor unit can “clip” onto a rope using an attached hand screw. While measuring the rope tension, the sensor unit “clipped” on the rope gives an analog output signal proportional to the load applied on the load cell. The analog output signal of the load cell is fed to the microcontroller through the signal conditioning and digitization circuit, and the corresponding load value is displayed on a screen as per the desired units of the load.
To evaluate rope tension meter working, tests were performed on an automatic door header setup. In this test, the rope tension meter showed a proportional response for any changes in the tension and high repeatability in its results. To calibrate the rope tension meter signal against the rope tension in units of Newton (N), calibration tests were performed on the door header setup.
The study described in this document tries to fill in the gap in the literature in regards to the development of rope tension meter used for measuring rope tension of lift automatic door assemblies. The design and the procedure discussed could be utilized by lift manufacturing and service companies for developing a portable and low-cost rope tension meter tool for factory or on-site use.


THE PASSENGER INPUT INTO ESCALATOR ACCIDENTS

EurIng David A. Cooper

The number of accidents occurring on escalators and moving walks around the world is increasing.

This paper will look at some typical and non-typical accidents and will investigate the passenger input into the event. It is known that many accidents occur as a result of horseplay and/or miscreant behaviour however it has been found that some accidents occur as a result of a totally innocent input by the passenger. To some in the industry the action of the passenger is obviously dangerous and leads to the event but some accidents are as a result of chance and often bad luck. This paper will look at primary and secondary causes of escalator accidents and will be supported by video material.


COMPUTER-AIDED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE LIFT CAR - GUIDING SYSTEM UNDER THE NORMAL AND EMERGENCY ARREST OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS

Mohammad Ghaleeh, Stefan Kaczmarczyk, Jonathan Adams, Shafqat Rasool
University Of Northampton United Kingdom

The paper presents Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model of a car / frame/ guiding system to carry out structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to predict the responses and stresses in the car/ frame/ guiding system during the normal operation and under the emergency arrest conditions. During the normal operation the excitation due to unevenness/ misalignment of the guiding system are considered. The emergency scenarios include the safety gear operation to arrest an uncontrolled overspeed in the down / up direction and during an overtravel under the buffer strike dynamic conditions. The model is then be used to optimize the design to ensure the safe operation of the system.


TECHNOLOGY REDEFINING THE FUTURE OF ELEVATOR INSTALLTION METHODS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

Philip Hofer1, Urs Püntener2
1Jardine Schindler Group Hong Kong, 2Schindler Elevator Ltd Switzerland.

The Installation of elevator guiding systems are fundamental to the ride quality felt in the car.

This paper will look at typical elevator installation methods and the technological journey of elevator installation in the construction business. Traditionally elevators were installed by fitters using scaffolds to access the hoistway, aligning the guide rails and adjusting the distance between them. The process was often quite challenging for the installation teams as safety was the main concern along with the physically strains, working in a harsh environment.

The process then progressed further to Scaffold-less installation methods with temporary suspended platforms, that offered improved safety standards according to the guidelines defined in EN 1808 & GB T 19155.
At the same time climb elevators were developed as the building industry required elevators to be installed and operational whilst the buildings were progressing in the construction phase.

Today new technology has allowed robots to become mobile, leaving the factories for robotic installation systems for elevators on construction sites. The repetitive tasks and harsh environments that challenged humans can now be done with the high quality and precision of robots.


AN ENERGY EFFICIENT FUEL CELL HYBRID ELEVATOR: THE MAIN CONCEPT AND DESIGN TOPOLOGY

Stefan Kaczmarczyk1, Janusz Blaszczyk2
1University of Northampton UK, 2Shanghai Everpower Technologies Ltd China

In the modern high-rise built environment electric motor driven traction elevators are applied for efficient Vertical Transportation (VT) of people and goods. In the traditional system the power to the electric motor is provided by the public mains supply (grid). When the system is raising the out of balance load in the car or in the counterweight the power is taken from the grid. When the system is lowering the out of balance in the car or the out of balance of the counterweight the potential energy is being returned to the drive system. This returned energy is referred to as ‘regenerated'. Thus the elevator drive is capable of transferring energy in both directions and is termed as ‘reversible’. The latest progress in Fuel Cell (FC) technologies have led to rapid developments in ground vehicle transportation.

These technologies can also be deployed in VT systems and this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible fuel cell power supply system for solar panel powered elevator operating in a high-rise building. It is assumed that all energy needed to power the elevator system will originate from the solar panels. Energy needed for the night time operation will come from the Hydrogen stored in medium-pressure tanks. The Hydrogen will be produced in a Unitized Reversible Fuel Cell (URFC) unit during a day, and it will be converted to electricity in the same URFC unit during the night-time operation. The grid will provide emergency power for peak operations or for longer periods of low solar panels output. The URFC unit shall operate in a tandem with a lithium-ion battery, while the size of URFC and battery shall be optimized for overall system minimum cost.

A comparison study with 100% battery and 100% Fuel Cell hybrid systems combined with solar panels will be also carried out. The required inputs for URFC-LI battery sizing are determined as follows. Elevator motors load curves obtained during high traffic operation periods over a prescribed period of time. Some of the energy required to operate the elevator will be provided from the energy recovery systems. The URFC will be sized to provide the balance of energy.

The solar panels are sized according to the required energy output and local climatic conditions. The proposed concept and design of the Fuel Cell Hybrid Elevator (FCHE) can be considered as an alternative to the traditionally powered electric elevator systems. The findings from this feasibility study demonstrate that such a system can provide a vertical transportation system of significantly improved efficiency, reduced energy consumption and of competitive cost.


COMPUTATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR SIMULATING IMPACT OF BUILDING SWAY ON HIGH RISE LIFTS

Jaakko Kalliomäki, Jarkko Saloranta, Joona Sorvari, Sakari Mäntylä, Mikko Puranen
KONE Corporation Finland

In high wind conditions tall buildings are subjected to sway, which has an impact on the lift system. To maintain passengers comfort, the lift performance may need to be reduced or the lift service may even need to be suspended in severe conditions. However, the lifts are a key service of a building and any reduction in it may cause substantial loss of revenue. Therefore, there is a strong demand on one hand to maximize the lift service availability as long as it is safe, and on the other hand to predict the impact of sway on the performance of the lift system.

This article is focused on the modelling of lift systems in building sway conditions based on a segmented approach. The first part consists of a top level lift model, which includes the building and lift data and is able to run the lift based on recorded or simulated landing and car calls. The top level model also selects the operational mode of the lift based on rope sway amplitudes it receives from the secondary model. The second part consists of real-time rope amplitude calculation model, which calculates rope amplitude based on a recorded or simulated building sway and car position from the primary model. Third part is a full-scale rope sway simulation model, which provides pre-calculated amplification data for the real-time calculation model and acts as a reference for its calculation results. All simulations are based on the modelling of the physical events.

This computational environment can be used to improve the accuracy of the real-time calculation, to predict lift system performance on future buildings and to test the efficiency of different anti-sway strategies.
This article explains how the computational environment is built and how it was utilized to develop and validate the real-time calculation model.


THE MAXIUMUM NUMBER OF PASSENGERS BOARDING A LIFT IN OFFICE BUILDINGS BASED ON AUTOMATED PASSENGER COUNTS

Tiina Laine, Janne Sorsa
KONE Industrial Ltd Finland

When a lift is standing on a level doors opened and already carrying several passengers, the passengers on the landing need to decide whether to board the lift or wait for the next. The boarding decision is made by contrasting the space available in the car to the required space, which assumedly depends on physical, behavioural and social factors. As already observed in the 1960s, passengers do not typically fill a lift up to its rated passenger capacity, i.e., the maximum number of passengers in a lift car that must not be exceeded due to lift safety standards. If, in lift traffic design, the maximum number of passengers in a lift car is assumed to equal rated passenger capacity, the lift group may not reach its required handling capacity in practice. Regardless the known contradiction, the maximum number of passengers accepting to board a lift has not been studied systematically. This paper aims at filling the gap by analysing automated passenger counts in three existing office buildings. The car capacity factor is defined as the ratio between maximum passenger count in a lift during a roundtrip and rated passenger capacity. The highest car capacity factors are derived for different traffic conditions as well as related to both handling capacity and pedestrian level of service criteria. The results indicate diverse behaviours when passengers are about to board a lift.


HEALTH MONITORING PLATFORM OF LIFTS AND ESCALATORS USING OPTICAL FIBRE SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Calvin Kin Fung Leung1, William Tze Wai Au1, Gordon Kin Pang Lei1, Davis Kei Chun Cheng2, Hwa yaw Tam3
1The Electrical and Mechanical Services Department of HKSAR HKSAR, 2Avaron Technologies Limited HKSAR, 3The Hong Kong Polytechnic University HKSAR

Reliable and safe operation of lifts and escalators (L&E) is crucial for every densely populated city around the world. To address the escalating expectation of lift/escalator safety and quality services from the community, the industry and government body have been aiming at condition-based and predictive maintenance (C&PM) to increase reliability, reduce downtime of L&E and also reduce the resources of maintenance professionals. Optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) possesses unique features including multiple parameter sensing, immunity to electromagnetic interference, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability, making it an ideal candidate for real time monitoring of the critical L&E components.

This paper presents a proof-of-concept trial of a health monitoring platform for C&PM of L&E based on FBG sensing technology. Customized FBG-based optical sensors have been implemented for measuring temperature, strain, acceleration and displacement of L&E such as the traction motor brake arms and suspension ropes in lifts. A novel design of sensing and data analytic approach capable of early identification of faults, including brake malfunction, step dislocation due to jamming of foreign objects, defective step rollers and handrails has gone through its proof of concept testing. Together with an FBG wavelength processing unit, an optical monitoring system (OMS) is established to comprehensively keep track of the conditions of the L&Es in real time.

The OMS has been deployed in two escalators and five lifts during the trial. The processing units collect and transmit the measurement data to a remote cloud-based server where algorithms for defective components identification and predictive data analytics can be implemented. The trial has successfully demonstrated a cost-effective and scalable platform which can lead to improved quality of service and enhanced safety of the L&E. Coupled with artificial intelligence, the platform can help advancing the capability of preventive maintenance and relieve the burden of servicing personnel for L&E.


RESEARCH OF REAL TIME VIDEO MONITORING AND REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM OF ESCALATOR

Yantai Luo, Zhongpei Wan, Cheng He
Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Corporation China

An escalator is a safe related, heavy-duty special equipment. It is a big challenge for escalator manufacturers to detect dangerous state or behaviour of passengers on an escalator by using real-time video monitoring and help the administrators in security monitoring room to control the escalator remotely in the emergent moment, which hasn’t been solved effectively since escalator was invented 120 years ago. This paper presents some practical methods to overcome the difficulties, which includes the following two aspects:

1)Detect dangerous state or behaviour of passengers, such as accidental falling down, walking in the reversal direction, based on real-time video analysis. To improve the accuracy of detection, this article introduces the method of real-time video analysis which combines optical flow algorithm and image deep learning algorithm.

2) Based on functional safety technology, use only one emergency stop button in the security monitoring room to control any of the escalators on which the dangerous state or behaviour of passengers is detected remotely.
The actual run of the system in a metro station demonstrates it can detect dangerous state or behavior of passengers accurately and stably and administrators in the security monitoring room can stop the escalator in a safer and more convenient manner. The application result shows that the proposed system has significant value in the lift industry.


FEASIBILITY STUDY OF USING COUPLER SKATE ENCODER SYSTEM FOR MONITORING THE REAL TIME STATUS OF LIFT DOOR OPERATION

Chetan Mahale, Babasaheb Patil, Rohit Nehe
Creestaa Elevators India Pvt. Ltd, India

This work presents a proof-of-concept study of the encoder system developed for monitoring the health of coupler skate assembly used in automatic door header system of lift. The motivation of developing a coupler skate encoder system is to provide real-time information on coupler skate status and its performance which could be further used for developing a preventive maintenance program of door header system.

The coupler skate encoder system consists of a Hall effect-based sensor, microcontroller board, and power supply unit. The Hall effect sensor measures the real-time angular rotation of coupler skate assembly. The microcontroller is flashed with the firmware which evaluates the time series data, and as a result, it sends a digital signal in case of any deviation in expected performance of coupler skate assembly. A benchtop sensor calibration set up is constructed to prepare a look-up table for calibrating analog voltage signal against angle in degrees.

The coupler skate encoder system is tested on automatic lift door test jig for evaluating its various parameters like accuracy and repeatability of sensor and real-time data analysis by the microcontroller. The results obtained from the experiments are found to be encouraging such that the coupler encoder system resolves the smallest angular rotation which is required to detect an erroneous condition of coupler skate assembly operation.

The proof of concept study highlighted in this document introduces a new concept of real-time monitoring of sub-assembly of door header system, which could be a guiding document in developing preventive maintenance technologies specially designed for lift automatic doors. The preventive maintenance technologies of such kind as discussed in this paper would be a significant development for ensuring smooth and error-free operations of lift doors.


UNRAVELLING DESTINATION CONTROL SYSTEMS - A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE

TAK Mathews
TAK Consulting Pvt. Ltd. India

Destination control systems (DCS) were conceptualized over half a century back. However, it was not till Schindler introduced the Miconic 10 in the 90’s, that DCS made entry as a viable lift control and grouping solution. Since then all major OEMs have developed their own proprietary solutions. Credible nonproprietary solutions too are available. This paper will explore the author’s working experience with destination control systems which began in 1998. The paper will address the validity of some of the claims, common implementation errors as well as issues related to DCS.


CHALLENGES TO DRAFTING A STANDARD FOR LIFTS FOR THE EVACUATION OF DISABLED PEOPLE

Nick Mellor
Lift and Escalator Industry Association, UK.

A standard for the design of a lift to be used for the evacuation of those whole cannot easily use the stairs (an evacuation lift) needs to respect different strategies for the management of evacuation of a building and, in the case of evacuation due to fire, needs to be based on the building design protecting the evacuation lift for at least the duration of the evacuation. Yet building design and management aspects vary according to the type of building and are subject to national building regulations which vary across different territories. This might partly explain a lack of convergence of evacuation lift solutions during a period where the use of lifts for evacuation has been widely discussed. In looking at evacuation lift provision, how many people might need or wish to use lifts for evacuation and how can those most at need be prioritised? These challenges are discussed with reference to the development of a draft European Standard prEN 81-76 for evacuation lifts. Various solutions for the operation of lifts for evacuation of those who are not readily able to evacuate by stairs are proposed and examined.


STUDY ON EVACUATION ROUTE IN CASE OF DISASTER CONSIDERING FRAGILITY OF MECHANICAL STRUCTURES

Kazusada Natsu, Osamu Furuya
Tokyo Denki University Japan

In the earthquake disaster, many industrial facilities suffered frequent equipment damage and their functions stopped. It also led to secondary damage such as breaking of the evacuation route due to falling or scattering of equipment. In the future, earthquakes with a high probability of occurrence are expected to cause more damage to many industrial facilities than past earthquakes. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively evaluate the characteristics of earthquake damage and prepare for possible disasters.

In this study, the damage of mechanical structures related to the evacuation route at the time of disaster is analyzed, and the improvement of the evacuation route safety is examined. By applying probabilistic risk assessment to various design parameters and strength of mechanical structures, the safety and durability of mechanical structures are evaluated. In addition, the damage risk of mechanical structures on the evacuation route in the event of a disaster is examined.

In this paper, escalators for moving between building levels are attracting attention. By analyzing the damage probability, an appropriate route to evacuate from a multi-story building during a disaster is examined.


DESIGN-OPERATION CONTINUUM METHODS FOR TRAFFIC MASTER

Goiuria Sagardui1, Aitor/Jon Gatziandia/Ayerdi2, Aitor Arrieta3, Aitor Agirre4, Maite Arratibel5
1Mondragon University España, 2IKERLAN/MGEP España, 3MGEP España, 4Ikerlan España, 5ORONA S.Coop. España

The lifecycle of lifts could last up to 30 years. As any other electrical or mechanical component, software of lifts also require a maintenance process. Maintenance copes with (1) hardware obsolescence and/or degradation, (2) bug fixing, (3) new functionalities, (4) requirements changes, etc. This evolution requires reliable and automatic engineering methods for developing and operating lifts. Advances in the last few years have resulted in more efficient development process, improving modelling and simulation techniques to validate complex systems from the early phases of development. However, once the system is deployed, methods used during operation and maintenance do not have synergies with methods used during the design. The steps from the development to operation, i.e. testing, delivery and deployment, often require certain manual work to guarantee reliability. Current software development approaches are not applicable or require extension for lifts, where evolution is constant. Furthermore, learning from operational data to enhance the design is becoming a necessity in this sector.
The ADEPTNESS project seeks to investigate and implement a streamlined and automatic workflow that makes methods and tools for the software development and maintenance of lifts to be seamlessly used during design phases as well as in operation. The ADEPTNESS framework uses a novel embedded microservices-based architecture for the context of lifts. The generation and reuse of test cases and oracles from initial phases of the development to the system in operation and back to the laboratory for further analysis will be investigated. This will guarantee a faster and more reliable detection of faults before a new software release is deployed into the lifts installations. This deployment will be automatic and synchronised to improve the agility of the whole workflow that covers design-operation continuum. Additionally, test oracles will run both at design-time as well as at operation, permitting the continuous validation of a software release.


FROM ROPING SYSTEMS TO LINEAR DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

Ian Smith
Thyssenkrupp Elevator AG Asia Pacific

It has been said that the design of lifts has not changed in principle since Elisha Otis developed the first “safety elevator” in 1853. The principle of an ascending and descending lift car remains focused around the drive motor and the hoist rope, with roping systems varying from a single rope to multi rope configurations. The use of metallic wire ropes was invented by Wilhelm Albert, a German mining engineer, around 1834. After more than 180 years steel wire ropes are still the main element of suspension for lifts around the globe.
With the increase in buildings exceeding 300m high the problems associated with steel wire ropes become more apparent. Larger drive motors are needed to account for rope weight and greater space is required to allow for rope sway. Space availability and cost become restraining factors.
Today the lift industry is looking at alternative rope and belt technologies using carbon fibre and rope-less drive systems applying linear motor technology (LDT). The concept of LDT is not new and has been used in the horizontal plane for many different purposes including high speed trains. Adapting LDT for lifts not only allows travel to unlimited heights but also introduces the concept of travel in both the horizontal and vertical planes for lift cars, allowing freedom of movement to the highest point of the building, and throughout parts of designated levels.
In this paper the author discusses the application of LDT to lifts and the potential it offers to transform the way people move, work and live in our built environment.


IOT, MAGIC OR MYTH

Rory Smith
University of Northampton USA

Through slick videos, magazines, and advertisements, IOT, ML, AI, and M2M have been promoted as a wonderful solution for the lift and escalator industry. This paper reviews the available IOT product offerings by capabilities, not by brand name, and evaluates their efficacy based upon current technology.

The review includes what is now possible, what is not now possible, and what might be possible in the near future.

Solutions available to the multi-national lift companies and those available to regional and local lift enterprises are also reviewed.


STUDY ON VIBRATION REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR LIFT ROLLER GUIDES

Yosuke Shima, Osamu Furuya
Tokyo Denki University Japan

In recent years, the number of lifts has been on the rise, as facility investment for the new construction of high-rise buildings by redevelopment in urban areas, barrier-free and renewal of old age has become active. In particular, a rope type lift without a machine room, which has a high degree of freedom in design, is rapidly spreading. But it has a problem that it is easy to generate an uneven load on the roller guide part due to its structure.

The roller guides is a vibration control mechanism installed between the rail in the lift shaft and the car on which the person rides, and plays the role of smoothly moving up and down while suppressing vibration.
Since roller guides require time and effort for maintenance and replacement, long life durability is required.

However, if the rollers are hardened to increase durability, there is a problem occurs that comfortability and noise will deteriorate.

In this study, the problem of vibration and abrasion in the roller guides is focused, and aim to examine the specification conditions of the roller guides to achieve both comfortability and durability.

Specifically, some experiments to investigate the mechanical properties and durability of the roller guides will be conducted. In these experiments, mechanical characteristics for the roller guides in a loading test using a hydraulic servo actuator is investigated, and an operation test using a small scale test apparatus is evaluated.

In addition, an analytical model for calculating the time history response of the lift car will be constructed, and the vibration control effect will be verified by simulation incorporating spring and damping elements based on the experimental results.

Through simulation analysis and experiments, a design way for a roller guide that has optimal riding comfort and durability within the range of safety regulations is proposed.


RESEARCH IN THREE DIMENSIONAL ELEVATOR SYSTEMS

Albert SO
University of Northampton, The University of Hong Kong, International Association of Elevator Engineers

As buildings are getting taller and wider, it is obviously a significant waste of resources by allowing one lift run inside a long hoistway. The idea of a multi-dimensional elevator system and multi-car-in-one-hoistway is not new. Some patents were successfully approved in the U.S. in late 80's and early 90's. However, its development has still been under an experimental stage when Thyssenkrupp announced the prototype of MULTI in 2016, which is claimed to be 3-dimensional. Over the years, with other researchers, the speaker has been looking into the traffic analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional elevator systems. The analytical estimation of the Round Trip Time of such systems is very much different from that of the conventional 1-dimensional system. At the same time, the employment of ropeless drives based on linear permanent magnet synchronous machines seems to be the only solution for the time being. In the symposium, the speaker will highlight recent studies in these two areas.


CALL-GIVING DEVICES IN LIFT TRAFFIC DESIGN WITH A DESTINATION CONTROL SYSTEM

Janne Sorsa, Mikko Kontturi, Mirko Ruokokoski
KONE Industrial Ltd Finland

In a destination control system, passengers use specific terminals in lift lobbies to register their destination floors. Often, a building security system is integrated with the lift control system and automatically sends a call to passenger’s home floor. Passenger’s interaction with these call-giving devices start before actually operating them by choosing a device, approaching it and preparing to use it. Under heavy traffic condition, passengers may need to wait for their turn to operate the device if the number of devices does not meet the demand. At the device, passengers swipe their access cards if necessary, interpret displayed instructions, input the destination floor and orient themselves towards the allocated lift. Once ready, a passenger walks to the allocated lift. So far, these details have been overlooked in lift traffic design and simulations by assuming an infinite-capacity queue for the devices and zero walking distance from the devices to the lifts. The standard passenger service quality parameters such as waiting time are defined from when a passenger either registers a call on a landing or joins a queue, which, in the case of the destination control system, includes time to queue and operate a call-giving device as well as time to walk to the allocated lift. This paper introduces a queue-theoretic model for call-giving devices and verifies it by simulations. The model predicts queue saturation, which allows to define handling capacity of a call-giving device with 80% utilization factor. The effect of walking distance on passenger service quality measures is studied by gradually increasing the distance from zero up to a remote location corresponding to security gates. Data from an actual destination control system installation is analyzed and compared to the current practices of lift traffic design.


STUDY ON ESCALATOR FALL OFF BEHAVIOR DURING EARTHQUAKE

Nayuta Sudo1, Satoshi Fujita1, Keisuke Mori2, Nakamura Izumi3
1Tokyo Denki University Japan, 2Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Advanced Technology R&D Center Japan, 3National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience Japan

Fall accidents of escalator occurred in the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The Escalator which the accident occurred was connected the second floor to the third floor of commercial facilities of steel frame building. In general, escalators are set on beams of buildings. Furthermore, one side or both sides of the support are not fixed because of preventing damage to the escalator from the interlaminar deformation of the building. However, the interlaminar deformation of the building occurred more than expected by the great earthquake. In consequence, the fall accidents occurred because the escalators came off from the beams of the buildings. After the escalator accidents, the seismic standard was revised in Japan. The interlayer displacement angle of buildings was considered more than before. From this, overlap allowance is longer so the possibility of the fall accidents decreases so much. However, the escalator is thought that an unfixed part of the escalator may collide with a building beam due to the earthquake. Furthermore, the escalator may transform by the collision and affect to the safety of themselves. Accordingly, the purpose is to investigate the dynamic behavior of the escalator with the building beam during earthquakes and to confirme safety against the revised earthquake resistance standards in this study. In this paper, a three meter lift escalator, which has fallen due to an earthquake, was targeted. The 3/10 scale model based on the three meter lift escalator which the top is not fixed was created. Further, the vibration experiment with the 3/10 scale escalator model was carried out. The behavior of the 3/10 scale escalator model was confirmed during the earthquakes.


OPTIMISING TRAFFIC HANDLING IN TALL BUILDINGS BY REDUCING THE NUMBER OF DESTINATIONS

Jochem Wit
DEERNS, The Netherlands

One of the key aspects of the traffic boosting mechanism of destination control systems is the reduction of the number of destinations per car cycle. This reduces the time losses per stop and the actual travel height per cycle, resulting in considerably shorter cycle times. The control system achieves this by dynamical zoning and concentration based on the selected destinations of the incoming calls. It however still serves all the destination floors. What would be the potential gain if we were to concentrate the destinations even further by allowing lifts to stop in normal operation only every 2-3 levels and adding attractive local stairs inbetween? Could this boost traffic handling by destination control systems even more or close the gap when using conventional control systems? Deerns has been involved in several projects where reducing the number of destinations has been introduced to either boost traffic handling in overpopulated/underlifted buildings, or reduce the required lift configuration for buildings in the design phase. The paper covers the traffic handling in three cases and one design study, including the practical objections that have to be solved and the unexpected social advantages of concentrating traffic on plaza levels.