2019 UK SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS

USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION IN LIFT TRAFFIC SYSTEMS TO COMPILE STATISTICAL CAR LOAD DATA AND DRIVE-MOTOR SYSTEM LOADING PROFILES

Lutfi Al-Sharif1, Stefan Gerstenmeyer2, Jens Niebling2, Richard Peters3, Maria Abbi3
1The University of Jordan, Jordan. 2thyssenkrupp Elevator, Germany.  3Peters Research Ltd, UK.

The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method has been successfully applied in lift traffic systems to evaluate a number of different parameters such as the round-trip time and the average travelling time; and under different conditions, such as sectoring control and for multiple lift cars running in the same shaft. Using the Monte Carlo Simulation methods is particularly effective in cases where the number of possible combinations becomes too complicated for analytical equation-based calculation methods to deal with.

This paper attempts to extend the applications of the Monte Carlo Simulation method in two areas: Car capacity and drive-motor system sizing.
In the first area, MCS is used in order to compile the statistical description of the number of passengers in the lift car whenever it departs from a floor. This is concisely presented in the form of a probability density function of the number of passengers in the car when it departs from a floor. Such a probability density function can be used to make judicious decisions regarding the suitable car capacity.
The second area involves using the same data in order to compile a load profile of the number of passengers inside the lift car when it stops at a certain floor and when it departs from the that floor, along with the probability of the lift car stopping at that floor. This provides a strong input to simulate the drive-motor system and evaluate the temperature rise in the windings and the power electronic devices.
A numerical example is given for a single lift car to illustrate the application of the method.


A TEMPLATE FOR AN UNDERGRADUATE ELECTIVE FINAL YEAR ELEVATOR ENGINEERING COURSE

Lutfi Al-Sharif 
The University of Jordan, Jordan.

It has been long recognised within undergraduate engineering education that elevators offer an ideal final year capstone course, due to the multi-disciplinary nature of its potential content. This paper sets out to develop a template for planning and delivering such a course at under-graduate engineering level based on experience gained at the School of Engineering at the University of Jordan.
There are basically four streams within this course: Traffic analysis and design; space and layout planning; mechanical elevator engineering and electrical elevator engineering. Thus, it is ideal as a final year undergraduate elective course for mechanical, electrical and mechatronics engineering programmes.
The traffic engineering stream introduces the students to the basic concepts of the round-trip time, the interval, the handling capacity as well as basic introduction to the concept of group control and dispatching. The space and layout planning stream introduces the concepts of shaft dimensions, pit depth and headroom, as well as structural forces in the pit. The electrical stream introduces the student to the concept of a safety circuit and safety devices, DC and AC motors, drive systems as well as electronics logic controllers. The mechanical stream introduces the students to the main mechanical components such as gearboxes, ropes, safety gears, speed governors, sheaves, guide rails and buffers.
Providing such an introductory course in elevator engineering allows the students to reinforce concepts that they had studies earlier in non-applied basic courses and provides an opportunity to develop multi-disciplinary integrated design skills. The long term aim of this project is to build an open access repertoire of study material, assessment tools and question banks as well as software that can be used to deliver and study the course.


WHAT CAN SIMULATION DO IN LIFT TRAFFIC DESIGNS THAT CALCULATION CAN'T

Gina Barney
Gina Barney Associates, UK.

A lift traffic design is carried out to determine the number, rated load, rated speed and other defining parameters of a lift installation in order to meet the passenger demands made upon it. A calculation can be carried out using verifiable, reproducible and repeatable mathematical (statistical) theory. Should further information be required then a simulation is often carried out, but can the simulation results be trusted? This paper reviews discrepancies in simulation results for the same project brief and reviews the correlation between simulation and reality. Proposals are made on how to make simulation results more verifiable, reproducible and repeatable.


WHEN IS A LIFT NOT A LIFT?

Michael Bottomley 
VT CONSULT, UK.

Over the last 10 years many types of lifting devices found in building have started to look and act the same. This blurring of products has implications for suitability, safety and equipment reliability particularly where the underlying driver for this is cost. The paper examines the types of devices available, the standards which should apply to their design, manufacture and installation and proposes guidelines to the recommended selection criteria for each type of device.


ESCALATOR RUNAWAYS

David A. Cooper 
LECS UK Ltd, UK.

There have been a number of high-profile escalator runaways in recent years resulting in passenger injury and deaths. This paper will look at the standards for escalators over the years and how they have developed with respect to the prevention of this type of accident and challenges the current standards as to whether they are sufficient. The paper will compare how both the lift industry as well as the cableway industry (ski lifts etc) has dealt with uncontrolled movement. The paper will also look at the appropriateness of EN115 and how it allows variables dependent upon rise and angle of inclination and whether this can be improved. The paper will be supported by video evidence.


ACCESSIBLE GOODS ONLY LIFTING TABLES (AGOLTS): THE LAW AND LEVELS OF SAFETY

David A. Cooper
LECS UK Ltd, UK.

When a person enters a lift whether to load it, unload it or just to travel in it the question is whether they are entitled to believe that it offers an acceptable level of safety. Given that the function of the lift, whether manufactured to The Lift Directive or The Machinery Directive, is the same (i.e. to move goods from one level to another) would it not be reasonable to expect that the levels of safety would be the same. This paper will look at the different requirements against uncontrolled movement in the downward direction and will discuss the risks with reduced levels of protection and the implications for persons in the car including those who have to enter the car to maintain the said lift.


EXTENDING THE HORIZONTAL JOURNEY TO THE SKY

Alan Cronin
AECOM, UK.

The optimum recipe for successful master planning has long been a subject of discussion and experimentation. While experts diverge at various tangents on this complex and organic subject matter, as is evident from the collection of essays published in "Rethinking Master planning: Creating Quality Places" last year, a handful of ingredients are common to many.

In master planning, design teams create "active frontages" that focus on encouraging transportation by foot by analysing the content of daily errands (e.g. medical appointments, grocery stores, fitness centres), and purposefully ensuring these are within comfortable walking distance of crucial amenities like parks and transportation nodes. The most successful master plans of recent times offer mixed-used, fine-grain, human-scale, high-density diversity along a planned or alluring human footfall. The focus is on the effect that vertical mixed-use, fine-grain activity nodes and paths could have on tall buildings, particularly on vertical transportation, security and fire safety. What are the challenges this new brief presents designers with and what are the new opportunities for landlords, occupants and visitors?

Does the added value outweigh the constraints? From this new brief, there is likely to be flexibility extended from the typical floor-by-floor tenant split and core arrangements to the vertical plane: soft spots, dedicated lifts, open staircases and adaptable building services for undefined spatial uses. This paper explores how these challenges can be accommodated by looking at how vertical communities can enhance our experience of buildings, our health, well-being, and make a positive contribution to the urban habitat.


IMPACT OF LEARNING STYLE PREFERENCES AND SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF DISTANCE LEARNING FOR ENGINEERS IN THE VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY

Thomas Ehrl1, Stefan Kaczmarczyk2, Jonathan Adams2, Benedikt Meier3
1thyssenkrupp Elevator AG, Germany. 2University of Northampton, UK. 3thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Germany.


The world became a digital world, where the internet and modern communication channels have changed the way people interact and communicate with each other.
On the other hand, digital technology drives the concepts of advanced learning and allows access to learning environment anytime, anywhere.
Based on the results of a quantitative survey conducted with participation of engineers and students across the entire world, a new pedagogic concept for Distance Learning (for the subject of Advanced Machine Dynamics) has been developed in this study.
The paper examines the concept and structure of the survey and looks into the analysis of the results. Furthermore, it emphasizes the impact of Social Media on the success and effectiveness of learning considering different Learning Style preferences.
The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the Distance Learning to ensure a learner-centric approach and optimized learning results.
The results of this study, combined with the results of research projects that focus on the performance of rope-less Passenger Transportation Systems, will help to improve the Learning Environment and concept of Distance Learning for engineers in the Vertical Transportation industry.


THE APPLICATION OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE CONTROL STRATEGIES IN HIGH-RISE LIFT TO MITIGATE THE EFFECTS OF BUILDING SWAY

Stefan Kaczmarczyk
University of Northampton, UK.

Tall buildings and high-rise structures are subjected to sway motions of large amplitude and low frequency due to the structural resonance conditions induced by wind loads and long-period seismic excitations. To mitigate the effects of resonance interactions on suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift systems the masses and geometry of the system can be adjusted to change the resonance frequencies to shift the resonance regions. However, in most cases the structural constraints and system design limitations do not leave much space for the possible changes to be effective. This paper revisits the active and passive control strategies to mitigate the effects of resonance conditions. The action of active stiffness control combined with a passive hydraulic damping/ tie-down device attached at the compensation sheave assembly is analyzed to design the optimal hybrid configuration and control strategy.


THE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF LIFTS (ELEVATORS): THE MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS APPRAISED

Stefan Kaczmarczyk1, Phil Andrew2
1University of Northampton, UK. 2Formerly University of Northampton, UK.

With modern computer systems equipped with relevant software tools / programs to automate the calculations the systems analysis and design of lifts appears to be relatively straightforward. However, thorough understanding of engineering principles and models applied is of paramount importance in conducting the system calculations. This is critical in correct understanding of the assumptions applied in the safety standard formulae and requirements. In this context the importance of application of design / structural integrity criteria associated with the worst case scenario dynamic conditions to achieve a system which complies with accepted safety code requirements is discussed and appraised. The paper demonstrates this through practical examples involving traction-drive systems designed to operate across a range of system design parameters.


THE IoT MIRROR FOR LIFT CARS

Fabio Liberali1, Alessandro Cremaschi2
1LU-VE Group, Italia. 2TGD Thermo Glass Door, Italia.

Lift cars are traditionally equipped with pushbutton to control the lift operation and to handle emergencies. However, these facilities in cars have the drawback of limiting communications between the user and the operational centre merely to an audio system. Furthermore, warnings, messages, information and similar, are traditionally displayed in the lift car by means of posting paper notices or using small closed-circuit TV screens, exclusively devoted to this function. The main object of this technology is to provide a lift car where, communication is not limited to audio signals but also includes video signals and internet connection, to provide features allowing the user to interact with the outside world and vice versa. Another object of the invention is to provide a car, having, within a single system of communication, the function of displaying notices and general information messages, both useful for the user and commercially relevant, whose dimensions do not affect the interior design. This new feature provides the lift owner the possibility to sell commercial communication/advertising with a quick pay-back for his investment. The system applies the IoT (Internet of Things) technology to the glass mirrors in lift cars and transforms common lift car mirrors into interactive touch-screen displays (managed remotely via internet).
The system has many different purposes including: (i) touch-screen interactive display, (ii) digital signage and communication, (iii) emergency connection to 24-hour servicing (through an additional micro camera) and (iv) maintenance support (direct video/audio connection between HQ and maintenance personnel on site).


TECHNICAL CHALLENGES INVOLVED WITH DESIGNING THE VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION IN A LARGE FOOTBALL STAND

Phil Pearson
Pearson Consult Ltd, UK.

 
Liverpool Football Club planned to replace their existing main stand with a much larger ‘New Main Stand’.  The New Main Stand was to comprise of general admission spectators and corporate guests. The accessible stadia requirements were to be met by providing facilities for a large number of supporters using wheelchairs. One of the challenges was how to route the general admission supporters and corporate hospitality guests up to their respective areas within set time constraints. 
 
The project involved developing the concept design through to the completed operational stand. The design included the multiuse of lifts at different phases of the event/match to minimise the number of lifts on the stand and evaluating the use of escalators in place of lifts to move able bodied spectators up to the upper concourse. Careful design of the general admission escalators was required to avoid overcrowding and their use in access and egress from stadium. The corporate hospitality guest movement was developed to regulate escalator traffic.
 
The design development included working with the football club to ensure that the lifts were only used as intended and obtaining City Council Building Control approval of the firefighting lift provision and supporters using wheelchairs evacuation and grant a licence
A fundamental aspect of the strategy was to minimise the number of lifts in the stand and working with the club and main contractor to ensure all vertical transportation equipment was installed and commissioned in time for test events and first match. 
 
This papers describes the challenges involved in designing a large football stand and how these were resolved.  
 

LOGGING AND ANALYSIS OF LIFT JOURNEYS USING AN ACCELEROMETER

Anna Peters, Richard Peters
Peters Research Ltd, UK.

Data measured with an accelerometer in or on a lift car can be very useful. Using an accelerometer to measure individual trips allows engineers to confirm that a lift is performing as specified. Further analysis of extended measurements can also provide an understanding of lift passenger demand, useful in planning new buildings and addressing traffic problems in existing buildings. Accelerometers can also be used as part of lift monitoring systems, collecting data about the lifts without the need for interfacing with lift controllers, which can be expensive due to the use of proprietary protocols. In this paper the authors address the analysis of accelerometer data for a multi trip scenario. With real as opposed to idea data, the analysis procedure has to account for accelerometer drift, noise and other data anomalies. Alternative data fitting techniques are considered. The final analysis software provides an idealised version of the measured data including the distance, velocity, acceleration and jerk for each trip. The distance measurements combined provide a spatial plot of lift position.


LIFT AND ESCALATOR MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: REQUIREMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION

Richard Peters1, Jim Nickerson2
1Peters Research Ltd, UK. 2Peters Research Ltd, USA.

This paper addresses the challenges of developing a Lift and Escalator Management System (LEMS) for owners and property management companies that operate multiple sites with lift and escalator equipment from multiple vendors. The requirements of people managing lifts and escalators are different to those supplying and maintaining the equipment. Sometimes this can create conflicts of interest. With the absence of a popular open standard, extracting information from modern lift and escalator controllers can be complex. A solution proposed accepts data over RS232, RS485, CAN, Ethernet and volt-free. Once an interface is in place, data needs to be transferred securely over the internet. For reliability, a wired internet connection is preferred, although mobile broadband is possible where there is coverage. Wired connections over secure company networks require special solutions to minimise blocking of data by firewalls. Users now expect a modern interface working on any web browser on computers, tablets and phones. The volume of data collected is enormous, requiring management and analysis to provide useful user feedback. Any equipment installed on site needs to be maintenance free to avoid excessive ongoing costs.


POLISH LIFT INDUSTRY EDUCATION & TRAINING

Tadeusz Popielas
Polish Association of Lift Manufacturers, Poland.

The Polish Association of Lift Manufacturers has been running a staff education program for the lifting industry since 2004. This was due to a shortage of employees for the installation and maintenance of lifts. This deficit widened after Poland's accession to the European Union and the rapid outflow of specialists from the Polish market to EU countries. PALM decided to conduct staff education in the public education system in Poland at the level of secondary technical school (technical school). PALM runs this program in a situation of continuous education reform, especially vocational education. The reform began in 2000 and continues to the present, which makes the program very difficult. In addition, in the initial period PALM taught a profession that did not exist in the list of professions of the Ministry of National Education, so PALM had to create this profession and then enter it into this list.


CYCLE LIFTS - MEETING THE FUTURE DEMAND

Adam Scott
Sweco UK, UK.

Recent changes to planning policy in many major cities, allied to a growing awareness of the need to address our sedentary lifestyles, is driving the need to design buildings to accommodate more and more bicycle spaces. In large commercial developments in London this can lead to a need for more than 2000 bicycle spaces, which often are located at basement levels. From a circulation perspective this creates a need to move people and their bicycles between street level and the bicycle storage facility. Sometimes this is achieved with a ramp, or adapted stairs, but often lifts are required. There is currently limited guidance on design benchmarks for lifts whose primary purpose is the movement of bicycles and their riders. What are acceptable waiting times? What is an acceptable queue length? How much space does a bicycle and accompanying rider occupy? How large does a lift need to be to accommodate two cycles and riders, or three cycles and riders? This paper explores the current guidance and proposed additional benchmarks for consideration when designing cycle lifts, and presents the findings of real world trials observing the use of existing cycle lifts.


UNDERSTANDING GB/T 24476 - 2017 CHINA'S TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR INTERNET OF THINGS FOR LIFTS, ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKS

Rory Smith
University of Northampton, USA.

 
The People’s Republic of China has a new code that requires all new or modernized lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks to be equipped with a remote monitoring system. The standard specifies every detail of the standardized monitoring system.
 
The data from the monitoring system is transmitted via the internet to a Safety Monitoring Platform. This Safety Monitoring Platform is operated by the national government.
 
The system and the data that it acquires is explained. Additionally, the potential effects of this standard on safety, quality and the lift industry are explored.
 

LIFT TRAFFIC DESIGN: CALCULATION OR SIMULATION?

Janne Sorsa
KONE Industrial Ltd, Finland.

Lift traffic design has become an integral part of tall building design. Typically, design calculations and/or simulations are iterated many times from early sketches until lifts are in use. Each iteration requires a significant effort from the parties involved in the design, namely, architects, consultants, developers and, often also, lift suppliers. Therefore, lift traffic design should be carried out with a fast and appropriate method to reduce the effort and time required without compromising accuracy and reliability. Traditional calculations based on uppeak roundtrip model are fast to execute and rather standardized, but their validity is limited to conventional control systems and rather basic building configuration. Lift traffic simulation, on the other hand, allows complex building models, traffic patterns and lift products such as destination control systems, double-deck lifts and other multi-car lift systems. Simulations may take a lot of time to complete and are susceptible for statistical errors, which are not necessarily known to the designer. Hence, some combination of calculation and simulation could be used in different phases of the design. This paper revisits the link between roundtrip time calculations and lift traffic simulations with a conventional control system. Roundtrip time formulae are extended for the destination control system and their accuracy is compared to simulations. As the formulae model only pure uppeak traffic, mixed uppeak and lunch traffic are simulated with modern control systems, which are then compared with standard control systems and calculated results where applicable.


MACHINES FRAMES MADE OF WOOD

Roland Stawinoga
IFA – Ingenieurbüro für Aufzugstechnik, Germany.

 
At present, wood is barely used in lifts at all. However, as the number of high-rise buildings made of wood continues to increase, it seems only logical to consider using wood for lift construction as well. This article provides information on the special characteristics of wood as a building material and describes some extraordinary opportunities for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact – and thus producing better lifts.
 
In particular, this article describes how wood can be used efficiently as the machine frame, which supports the motor and pulley in the machine room and maintains the distances specified for the rope from the car and counterweight while achieving the best possible angle of wrap for the rope around the traction sheave. Apart from this example, the author describes generally how wood should be used to a greater extent in lift construction not only to improve aspects such as noise insulation within the building but also as a means of reducing costs and increasing sustainability.
 

DESIGNING A VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY IN THE LARGEST AND TALLEST BUILDING IN THE CITY OF LONDON

John Stopes
The Vertical Transportation Studio, UK.

This paper will cover the various stages of creating the largest and tallest building in the City of London. The paper will be presented from the perspective of a specialist vertical transportation consultant. The area around Bishopsgate and Leadenhall is the central hub for the insurance and legal professions in the City of London and over the past 10 years it has seen substantial growth in the number of tall buildings to provide modern commercial accommodation.
The development was originally known as “The Stub” and has aspirations of being the tallest building in the City and became known as the “Helter-skelter”. The development failed for various reasons including being over ambitious, inefficient and poorly funded.
A number of attempts were made to bring the project to fruition and the professional team were able to put together a scheme which was far more appealing and responded to the reasons why the original scheme floundered.
A feasibility study for a building designed to accommodate up to 12,000 people was subsequently commissioned. As with most large projects there were extensive exchanges and discussions looking at new ideas and how they affected the core as well as the height and efficiency of the building.
It was crucial that the lifting strategy was developed at an early stage as the height and efficiency of the building would be materially affected by the design.
This paper sets out the journey through the whole design process from concept to delivery. This paper sets out the journey through the whole design process until the lift contractor started on site.


FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON ROPE VIBRATION SUPPRESSION BY UTILIZING LOW-STROKE LIFT CONNECTING INTERMEDIATE EVACUATION FLOORS AND ITS EFFECT THE CONSIDERATION AT ITS EFFECT BY USING RISK INFORMATION

Suzuko Tamashiro1, Satoshi Fujita1, Shigeki Okamura2, Kazuhiro Tanaka3, Tomohiro Shiki3
1Tokyo Denki University, Japan. 2Toyama Prefectural University, Japan. 3Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation, Japan.

Lifts are essential for means of vertical transportation. Recently, the lifts installed in the high-rise buildings are long travel, thus the lift ropes are longer. The natural period of the high-rise buildings is longer than that of the conventional buildings. As the lift rope becomes longer, the natural period of the lift ropes become longer. Accordingly, the natural period of the lift ropes gets closer to the natural period of the building. Consequently, the lift ropes might be hooked to the equipment of wall when the lift ropes vibrate by an external force, such as a strong wind and earthquake. Furthermore, secondary accident such as containment of passengers and lift service stop may occur.

In the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, 2015 cases of problem such as the catch and the damage of lift ropes have been reported. However, operation of lifts after earthquakes are required for the security of the refuge course. Accordingly, the analytical method for comparative evaluation is investigated in this study. Furthermore, method to prevent a catch by vibration reduction of the lift ropes is investigated.
In the previous research, it was confirmed that the division of the lift stroke is effective for reducing the response of the rope. In this case, the lift stroke was equally divided. However, the displacement of the upper lift became larger than that of the other lift. Accordingly, in this report, the effectiveness of the division ratio of lift stroke was examined. As the result, the displacement of the upper lift decreased for the apposite division ratio. The probability of catching rope of the upper lift is reduced. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the risk of the catching rope reduces in probabilistic risk assessment.